Alonissos Island Sporades Greece

 

http://www.traduire.de/history_alonissos.htm

 

During the Ice-Age in the Quaternary, enormous water masses have been bound in ice, leading to a significant lowering of the Mediterranean Sea level, which, at those times, has been 270 feet below the actual level. The Islands of Skiathos, Skopelos and Alonissos had a land bridge to the mainland, enabling the immigration of continental animals. This continental bridging is documented by findings of rhinoceroses, small horses and deer (Ka, Page 80) on the Island of Alonissos. (Ka, S. 80)

Middle Stone Age: Findings on the Island of Alonissos of calcified animal bones together with stone tools in Kokkino Kastro, as well as north of Steni Vala and Glipha point to the oldest testimonies of human presence in the Aegean Sea (Ka, Page 80)

Neolithic: During a  excavation test on a small island in the bay of Agios Petros, south-west of the island of Kyra Panagia,  three settlements levels from this period have been discovered (Le, Page 16)

Verbal reports speaking about exceptional tall skeletons found in old graves on the Island of Alonissos -  2 m and above, as it is said  - point to pre-Hellenic populations (m/ S.P.8)

The tale goes that under a prince Staphylos, Cretan colonies might have been created on the Alonissos and Skopelos Islands (S, P. 7). Another source denies a Cretan colonization (A, p. 15)

Alonissos, as the mass of the islands, becomes a Mycenaean colony (S, p. 7) 

Debut of the Trojan War. The saga speaks of a war consecutive to the rapt of Helena, the beautiful wife of Menelaus, King of Sparta, but another option might have been the fight for supremacy of the rich Black Sea trade. At the time, when the fleet of Agamemnon left anchor in Aulis to head for Troy, they might have sailed alongside the south coast of the Sporades, between Alonissos (Ikos in ancient Greece) and Peristera (St., S. 68 / C, p. 60 ff)

Peleus, Achilles' father lands on Ikos (Alonissos) and dies there. His grave has been  shown as an interesting sight (P, volume 3, Row 1361 /L, p. 256) 

The Island is inhabited by Carers and Dolopians L, p. 256). The Carers, cited by Homer, lived on the coasts of SW-Anatolia (Milet, Valley of the Meander, Mykale-Mountains. They have been allies to the Trojans and like the Phoenicians - famous sailors.

The Dolopers, cited by Homer as well, a Neighbor tribe to the Thessaler, inhabited the PindosMountains in one of the most isolated regions of Greece. The Dolopers have been members of the Delphique Amphiktyonie (Amphiktyonie: Confederation of numerous Poleis or tribes with a sanctuary as the centre of a common cult and political councils (L, Annexe).

Parting from Chalkis, being as the most important City of Euboea in a central position and disposing furthermore of a rich and fertile land, the Island is colonized by Chaldiquean settlers, together with Skopolos (called Peparethos in ancient times) and the other surrounding islands.

Also more city-creations such as in Chalcidice, Kyme, Naxos and Neapolis (Naples) in Italy were initiated be people from Chalkis . (P, Volume I, Column 1125).

These colonization efforts - conducted in the name of expansion - were conducted in a systematic and substantial way; these  urban foundations lasted until the early Christian times.  (M, S. 301)

The Sporades saw independency and prosperity. Secondly to the Greek Geographer Skylax there were two villages on the Island of Ikos. (S, p. 9)

Skiathos might have had 3 cities.

On the Island of Peparethos (today Skopelos), the city of Panormos is founded. Testimonies of the relative prosperity are the coins of Peparethos found in the following periods (M, S. 302)

The athlete Agnon from Peparethos (today Skopelos), becomes the sprint champion in Olympia (M. S, 302)

First Persian War: Persian troupes, landed in the bay of Marathon, are beaten by a small army of Athenians under Miltiades and put to flight. (H, p. 20)

Second Persian War: The Persian army takes the land way through Macedonia while the Persian Fleet sails along the coast und appears not far away from Skiathos. The Greeks destroy more then 500 vessels of the fleet near CapeArtemission. This sea battle is not decisive and leads to the retreat of the Greek Land Army, a retreat covered by the Spartan Leonidas on the Thermopiles pass (M, S. 305)

His heroic resistance is broken and the Persians invade Attica, take over Athens and destroy all buildings. But the Greek Fleet under Themistokles beats the Persian in the bay of Salamis (H, S21)

A Greek Army under the Spartan King Pausanias beats the Persian Army near Plataiai.

The Battles of Salamis and Plataiai end the Persian threat to Greece (H, S. 21)

First Delian League, initiated by Athens against Persia.

Ikos, which was the ancient name for the actual Island of Alonissos, is a member of this League, contributing an annual tax of 1.500 Drachms to Athens (L., page 256)

Skiathos paid only 100 Drachms, Peparethos (today Skopelos) 18.000 Drachms. As the contributions were obviously based onto the economical capacity of the Aegean islands, this gives us an image of the economic situation after the end of the Second Persian War. (M, Page 307)

The city of Ikos and its Acropolis were situated in the region of the actual peninsula Kokkinakastro and another small island quite close to Ikos, named Vrachos. A date concerning the foundations is not known. At an unknown time, the greatest part of the land area bearing the city sunk into the sea. One thinks that this was not an abrupt event, giving the population the options to leave in safety (A, p. 11pp)

(Pausanias reports of the City of Helike on the northern coast of the Peloponnes, few miles east of the actual City of Aigion,  sinking and disappearing into the sea after a seaquake in the year 373 BC. (Pau, p. 369pp., 650).

Peloponnesian War. The prestige and the rise of Athens, as well as its hegemonial position in the Aegean, conditions the suspicion of Sparta and leads to war. The Northern Sporades are allies to Athens. Sparta remains victorious and gains the hegemony. (H, S, 21 p)

The Northern Sporades are occupied by Sparta. (S, p.9)

Peparethos [today Skopelos] suffers from an earthquake destroying part of the city wall, the Prytaneion (town hall) and some residential areas. (B, Volume 2, p. 388)

The Athenian historian Thukydides (approx. 460-400 BC, states in his "History of the Pelop.War") that many earthquakes forced the Spartan King Agis - wanting to invade Attica - to abandon his plans;

"Also near Peparethos [today Skopelos] one could observe the retreat of the freak tide but without inundations; only an earthquake had a wall come down, as well as the Town Hall and some houses." (Thu, P. 257)

An Earthquake made the whole Greece tremble; Peparethos is hit hardest; there may have been impacts on Alonissos as well.

Ikos [today Alonissos] becomes independant again. (S. p. 9)

In ancient Greece, Ikos [today Alonissos] becomes famous for its wine. Amphorae serving to ship the wine are produced in the TsukaliaBay, where we still can find shards with the stamp "IKION" [from Ikos]. Such a shard can be seen in the Agora-Museum in Athens (m)

Coins with the inscription IKION show Poseidon on its verso. This Deity had the favour of the population of IKOS. (S. p. 10)

Phanodemos, an antic writer writes a book about the antic Alonissos [today probably Kyra Panagia], lost today.

Second Delian League, by Athens against Sparta

Hegemony is reached.

Ikos becomes a member of the League until its dissolution.

Under the Macedonian King Philip II,  the region between Thrace and Thessaly is united under his leadership. (H, p. 27)

The pirate Sostrates occupies the Island of Alonissos [today probably Kyra Panagia]. This is considered as an affront against Athens, demonstrating its weakness. (M, p.308)

Athens posts warriors on the Skiathos-Island. During the disputes between Athens and Philip II. of Macedon the Sporades are considered to be  eminent bases for the Athenian fleet. Demosthenes cites that the ports of Limnos, Thassos and Skiathos were eminent Athenian bases; probable Ikos was part of them (M, p. 308)

The City Wall of Skiathos is raised by fear of any incursions by Macedonians.

A wall is raised on the Island of Ikos [today Alonissos] in Kokkinakastro, parts of the seaside wall can still be seen. (L. S. 256)

Ikos [today Alonissos] becomes a base of the Athenian Fleet (S, p. 10).

Ikos is raided by the people of the neighbour Island of Peparethos [today Skopelos], (P, Volume 2, Column 926)

Philip II. of Macedonia conquers the Island of Alonissos [today probably Kyra Panagia] and installs a garrison there. In a systematic way, Athens starts to fortify the Islands of Skiathos and Peparethos with Towers. (M, p. 308pp)

Probably Ikos is fortified as well, tower rests near Mourtero named  " Saranta abragieV" speak in favour of an extensive defence system. In later times a monastery was built. (m)

The Perapethes (Skopelotes) liberated the Island Alonissos [today probably Kyra Panagia], without the help of Athens and captured the Macedonian garrison. Reacting, Philip sent a fleet under the General Alkimos, who recaptured and ransacked the Island. A complaint of the Perapethes in Athens led to a reprisal under the General Kephisopon ransacking the Macedonian coasts.

Demosthenes, 384 - 322 BC, the most famous Orator and a leader of the opposition against the Macedonian expansion politics of Philip II, stated his famous Oraisons, the so-called "Philippika". When speaking in connection of the antic Island of Alonissos [today probably Kyra Panagia], one always cites his oraison "Peri  Alonnhsou " (Over Alonissos).   This speech treats not so much the  Island   by   itself, but the conflict between Athens and Philip II. of Macedonia, a conflict leading to the supremacy of Philip. No details are given concerning the Islands, not to speak of the localisation of the cited Island. A modern introduction to this long discourse starts as follows:

"Soon after the Peace of Philokrates, it (i.e. the Island) was confiscated by the Pirate Sostratus. Philip dislodged the pirate and kept the Island. In 343 the Athenians sent a delegation to Philip, to whom Hegesippus, a passionate supporter of Demosthenes belonged, claiming restitution (of the island). Philip reacted in sending himself a messenger to Athens with a letter offering therein to give the Island to Athens (not to restitute it!), or, to submit this case to an arbitrating commission. As an answer this actual speech has been sent. The speech is eloquent and unequivocal enough to gain consent by the Athenian audience, but its style does not have the imaginative richness and the verve of Demosthenes, having himself not been a member of the delegation, in contrast to the orator. Dionysos of Halokarnassus cites it unconditionally as being the Eighth Philipica, but Libanus refutes it and maintains in a definitive manner, that the critics recognised it as the work of Hesippus, due to its style and content. For sure, the opinions of Demosthenes have been reported faithfully, and, possibly,within the opera of Demosthenes  this speech may have taken the place of his own, original  speech... (De, p 148)

After the Victory over Athens and Thebes during the battle of Cheroneia, Peparethos [today Skopelos] becomes part of Macedonia.(M, p.309)

In the peace-treaty of Athens with Philip II. of Macedonia Ikos looses its independence and falls under Macedonian supremacy (L, p 256)

All the Northern Sporades, as well as Greece as a whole remain under Macedonian Supremacy (St. p 166)

In sight of Peparethos [today Skopelos] Philip V. of Macedonia and King Attalos of Pergamon engage a sea battle. The roman historian Titus Livius reports that Attalos lands on the island and destroys all cultivated land around the town, before Philip can conquer the Island. (M, p. 306)

A Roman fleet lands on Ikos. They stop there and occupy it. (P. Volume 2, Column 1361/Fr, p. 17)

During the altercations between Philipp V. of Macedon and the Romans, Philip, anticipating that  the islands may serve as strong holds to the Romans, destroys all towns on Peparethos and Skiathos and depopulates the Islands (M, p. 310)

Probably this has been the fate of the Island Ikos too.

Peparethos submits itself to Antiochus II. of Syria, who has landed in Thessaly in order to liberate Greece from the Romans. This means, that a new repopulation of the Island might have occurred (M, p. 310)

Greece becomes part of the Roman Empire (H, p. 29

Mithradates, King of Pontus, incites an uprising against the Romans. His Captain Metrophinis uses the Islands Peparethos and Skiathos as a base for his squirmishes and plundering in Thessalian Magnisia. (M, p. 310)

With his fleet, the Roman general Vrotius Soura dislodges the Plunderers and forces the Islands Peparethos and Skiathos anew under the dependency of Rome.

During this period, the Islands of the Northern Sporades suffer heavily under the extension of piracy. (M, p. 310)

Concerning the Northern Sporades, Strabon, a Greek Geographer and Historian writes in book 9 of his Geography: " In front of the main coast there are many islands belonging to Magnisia, especially Skiathos, Peparethos, Ikus, Halonnesus and Scyrus, with towns on them with identical names...

Later, when Philipus saw himself winning more power, that the Athenians were masters of the Sea, and therefore dominating not only these Islands, but not also other ones, he made the ones which were very nearby very famous. While trying to get the supremacy, he continued with the other Islands, and, as he gained the biggest part of Magnisia for Macedonia and of Trakia and the surrounding lands, he overrun also the Islands in front of Magnisia, making those Islands, known by nobody, the stake of the battle and, by doing this, very famous." (Str. S. 805 p)

[This quote is very important as it shows that the antique Halonnesus is not identical with the actual Alonissos. It is also a sign, as for where we should look for the Island, which wore the name in ancient times, which means not in Hagiostrati, as Fredrich thinks (cf. 1905) but more likely in the actual Kyra Panagia with its two superb natural ports.]

During the epoque of the Emperor Augustus there existed a mint on Peparethos, coining its own silver coins. The commerce seemed to so prosperous and the viticulture so superior that the main town of the Island was named Evoinos (Good Wine) (M. p. 310)

The Roman Consul Antonius cedes the Islands of the Northern Sporades - among them also Ikos - to Athens. This supremacy lasted until the so called late imperial time of the Roman Empire (L. p. 256)

By this, a political order was re-established. In those times, the History of the Northern Sporades oscillated between an apparent freedom and a heavy taxation by the Romans, with the profit of a symbolically independant administration.

(M, p. 310)

The emperor Septimus Severus brought this illusory liberty to an end and declares the Roman supremacy over the Northern Sporades. This supremacy lasts until the fall of the Roman Empire.

Under this roman sovereignty, the Island of Skiathos had some democratic privileges: Communal administration, jurisdiction, and the right to assemble the population of the commune)(M, p. 310)

Constantine the Great renames Byzantium into Constantinopel, in order to emphasize its function as a Christian Capital by opposition to the pagan Rome. (M, S. 311)

There is no trusted information of the moment of christianisation of the Northern Sporades. Although there is a written proof of a bishop's cathedral in Skiathos.

The Christian religion becomes a state religion in the east-roman provinces (M, p 311)

Partition of the Roman Empire. The Greek regions belong now to Eastern Rome, to the Byzantine Empire (St. p. 320)

The small Episcopal seat Byzance becomes the patriarchat Constantinopel. Constantinopel and no longer Athens is the centre of the Greece's life; Greece becomes "provincial": No longer they call themselves Hellenics, they are now Romaioi (H. p. 36)

After the end of the Roman supremacy, Ikos becomes the property of the inhabitants of Skopelos (S, p. 10)

Demetrios is cited as being the bishop of Skiathos (M, p. 311)

Skiathos, under the Regency of Constantin Pogonatus, is devastated and depopulated by Slavic invasions. (M., p. 312)

Those Slavic incursions and the control of the Aegean Archipelago by the Arabs is a disaster for the Islands of the Northern Sporades  (M, p. 312)

The Arabs take Thessaloniki. (M, p. 312)

The Saracen Fleet, on its way back from the plundering of Thessaloniki makes a halt of two days in the VassilikoBay in Peristera. Besides the loot there were also Greek prisoners on board, intended to be sold on the slave markets in the Arabic Empire and in Egypt. (A, S.22)

An inscription Athanasius  is named as Bishop of Skiathos and Skopelos. (M, p. 312)

Venice is exempted from customs when trading within the Byzantine Empire. (M, p. 313)

Thessaloniki is taken by the Normans (M, p. 313)

Siege and Capture of Constantinopel by the Crusaders during the 4th Crusade. End of the Byzantine Empire. (H, p. 49)

Until the appearance of the Ottomans there is no coherent Greek history any more, but only a History of singular states. (H, p. 51)

The Northern Sporades belong to Venice.

The Venetians seem to be tolerant against the population and allow some kind of autonomous administration (M, p 313)

The Latin Empire of Constantinopel on both coasts of the MarmaraSea can subsist only 57 years. Alongside the Latin Empire, there is also the stronger Greek Empire of Nikaia (H, p. 51)

During this period, on the Island of Chiliodromia (today Alonissos) the fortified village might have been founded. (A., p. 15/cf also 1538)

The Venetian Marc I. Sanoudo takes over the Islands of the Aegean sea - among them also the Northern Sporades, and erects the Dukedom of Naxos. (M, p. 313)

Euboea (Negroponte) under Venetian, and, afterwards, under Ottoman rule (H, p. 62)

Constantinopel is re-conquered under the Dynasty of the Palaiologues (H, p. 52)

In the Secealo catalogue appears for Skopelos the denomination Peparethos for the last time (M, p. 293)

The Latin and Greek Empire merge into the renewed Byzantine Empire (H, p. 52)

In Byzantine times the Island is called Chiliodromia. The small church Ag. Anargiri is erected. (np)On the north coast of the Island.

Another Source situates this construction in the 17th century (S, S. 31)

The Catalanes attack the Northern Sporades (M, p. 314)

The Northern Sporades are attacked by an Ottoman fleet. The commander in chief Umur Pacha wrecks havoc on the Islands and takes a great number of prisoners away to Anatolia. This leads to anarchy. (M, p.314)

Skiathos suffers attacks from Venetian, Katalan, Turkish and Greek bandits and island-pirates. The population tries to protect itself on the Rocks of the Castro. (M, p. 314)

Skopelos is taken by the Turkish and is occupied for a long time (M, p. 314)

A certain Buondelmondi visits Skopelos und speaks about 2 towns: Skopelos and Glossa. (M, p. 314) 

Mohammed II. conquers Constantinopel. End of the East roman empire (Byzance) (ST)

The Island of Alonissos is occupied by the Venetians (H, p. 62)

The Northern Sporades become Venetian property.

The Ottomans dominate the Greek Continent quite fully. Under Venetian rul,e the AegeanIslands withstand almost for one century.(H, p . 53)

First War against the Turks, Venice defends the AegeanIslands against the Turks. (H, p. 63)

From former Venetian property, Euboea passes to the Turks (H. p. 62)

The Orthodox Bishop of Skiathos dares to lead the population of Skiathos in an insurrection against the despotic Venetian Governor Vicenzo Buffo (M, p. 315

In a document, the inhabitants of the Northern Sporades complain to the Venetian Admiral about the catastrophic situation, in as such, that, because of the pirates, nobody dares to leave the fortified Kastro to do necessary works on the fields or go fishing. This means that the menace of piracy was still virulent. The Venetian were not able to defend the inhabitants of the Islands and/or to improve life and security; instead of, the oppression becomes even worse. The consequence is that many men prefer to hire as sailors in the Ottoman fleet.  (M, p. 315)

Barbarossa, the admiral of the Ottoman Fleet puts the siege in front of Skiathos with only 120 people. The defenders abandon their wounded Governor Gerolamo Memo and surrender  to the Turks. This does not help them much, because Barbarossa takes their disloyalty as a pretext to take the 3800 Venetians and Greeks as prisoners. Afterwards, the Kastro is completely abandoned, as a French Admiral, visiting the Island shortly afterwards, reports; only in retired regions some humans survive. (M, p. 315

2nd Turkish War. During this war, the Venetians loose the Northern Sporades. (H, p. 76)

After long and changeful fights between Venetians and Turks, the Island Chiliodromia (today Alonissos) falls under Turkish rule.

The fortified village (Kastro) on Chiliodromia (today Alonissos) can be dated from this time (M, p. 98, without source)

Another source mentions the time between 1204 and 1260 (A, p. 15)

With theTurkish  conquest of Nauplia and Monemvassia, the last strongholds of Venice on the Peloponnes disappear. (H. p. 76)

Official  beginning of Turkish administration after a peace-treaty with Venice (M, p. 315)

Skiathos is governed by a Turkish Governor and administrated by Greek elders, designed every year anew. A few Turkish families live on the Island alongside with Turkish Administrators. The inhabitants pay an annual tax of 18. 000 Grossia (M, p. 316)
[Grossia = Turkish currency unit, a malapropism of the Kurus, a 16th century currency, pronounced Kouroush (written also as Grusch), a silver coin, and a subdivision of the Lira. A relative value is difficult, not the least to the strong depreciation in the last century. The Kurus circulated in
Turkey until 1960. The Turkish Kurus, the German Groschen and the Italien Grosso have a common language root: the middle latin 'grossus', a denomination of a coin, with the value of 12 Denars, having been the most common "token coin" of the modern times. In Greece, the Turkish currency unit Grossia has been in circulation for some time even after the liberation from Ottoman rule. (m, Institute of Turkologia, University of Munich)]

With the fall of the principality of Naxos, the Ottoman Supremacy over the GreekIslands is as total as over the Greek mainland (H., p. 53/76)

Young men from the Sporades have to do compulsory labour in the Greek fleet. For each 10-20 houses or for 60 to 100 inhabitants, one sailor had to be presented. This military service was transmuted into a financial tax; 300, later 120 Grossia per person [Grossia Cf. 1540]

Over the time, the inhabitants pf Skiathos could also acquire the Office charge of a Governor.

The traveller Robert reports that Skiathos is inhabited by Greeks paying taxes to the Venetian and the Turks (M, p. 316(

The Venetian conclude a peace treaty with the Turks (H, p. 76)

During the whole century the Northern Sporades suffer under the ongoing misfortune of piracy, a "profession" practised by pirates of all nations. (  M, p. 316)

"Not rebellion against Turkish rule, bat piracy was the most desolate element of trouble during this period. The corsairs of North Africa, Catalonia, Dalmatia, Genoa, Malta, Sicily and the Tuscany plundered one and hundred times the Greek coasts. Christians did also participate in these raids, although their victims might not have seen any difference. 'The incredible greed of those pirates ravaged the coastal areas in such a way, that even in our times the depopulated valleys an the coasts of the Archipelago show,  how the people feared and avoided to live nearby the sea!' wrote George Finlay even in the second half of the 19th Century" (a history of Greece, volume V, p. 57 (H, p. 77)

The Venetians recapture temporarily Skiathos (M, p. 316)

In his account of a journey a certain Bernard Randolph emphasises  the fact of wine growing and the good quality of the wine. He mentions also a wine commerce between Skopelos and Cairo in Egypt (M, p. 265 pp).

The French Missionary Pere Braconnier, the founder of the Jesuits-Mission in Thessaloniki reports about the absence of Turkish clerks in Skopelos: " The Skopelites enjoy privileges which are unknown in the rest of the Ottoman  Empire. There are no Turks on the Island. The inhabitants have the right to ring the bells and to erect crosses on chimneys and, if they have to call for the Kadi, his expenditures have to be paid for 3 days only". M, p. 316)

A traveller named Gallant cites the import of wine to Chios originating from Skopelos (M. p. 265 pp)

The Sultan Osman III confirms that the Islands of the White Sea (Aegean sea) are exempted from duties. (M, p. 265 pp)

Georges Tsogano, the boss of the bandits, together with 60 of his men, coming from the Northern sea-side, climbs up the fortifications of the Castro of Skiathos,  plunders and destroys the houses, kills  the inhabitants, and, by doing this, destroys also the archives of the civil service, testimonies of the middle age history. (M, p. 316)

In the same time, the Russian Admiral Orloff plunders the Northern Sporades in the same horrifying manner. (M, p. 316)

In the "New Geography" of D. Phillipides and G. Konstandas one cites the fact, that there exist 60 to 70 houses in Alonissos.

Furthermore they cite the 200 houses in Skiathos and 1 200 in Skopelos. Skopelos has 6000 to 8000 inhabitants. By  ships owned by ship-owners of the Island, wine from Skopelos is transported to Turkey and Europe. (M, p. 265 pp)

One speaks of an old custom on the Sporades: In case of demise of the fiancee any cash in advance on account of the dot, the so- called "Commercial Capital" is to be redeemed with an interest of 10%. This custom lasts up to the end of the 19th Century. (M, p. 268)

High on the mountain of Athos a religious cult,  celebrating the death souls each Saturday, gains momentum. The devotees to this cult, the so-called "Kolyvades" are accused of heresy and have to flee. Those monks look for a hide on the Northern Sporades in already existing monasteries there. As a welcomed consequence, those monks serve as pedagogues to the populations and their medicinal knowledge is obviously salutary for the Islanders.

The rebel Nicotsaras appears in the Aegean Sea and mobilises volunteers from Skopelos and Skiathos against the Turks. His fleet is amplified by boats from the Islands. He makes raids up to the Hellespont. The High Portal - the Government of the Osmanian Empire - tries to dissuade the inhabitants of the Islands to lend him support, but without success. The rebels from Olymp continue the fight even after the death of  Nicotsaras up to 1816. (M, p.317)

During the Revolution, many rebels came from the Olymp to Skiathos bringing their families with them. This situation leads to enormous tensions between the two groups, as the armed rebels suppress the inhabitants of the Castro in such a way, that part of them are forced to emigrate, another part appeals to the Greek Government for help. Only after 1828 - after an intervention of the Greek Fleet under the command of Kapodistrias - can the situation be normalised. (M, p. 317)

Some of the rebels - together with their families - pursued by the Turks, found a refuge on the Island of Alonissos, they formed - together with the autochthones - the actual population of the Island. As residential families, i.e. persons, born on the Islands, were considered the oldest of the Families with the names: Tsoukanas, Anagnostou, Efstathiou, Malamatenios, Ghioulis u. a. (A, S. 16)

Skopelos                                had                         7 000 Inhabitants

Skyros                                       "                           2 500           "

Skiathos                                    "                           1 500           "

Iliodromia (Alonissos)           "                           300              "

(K, S. 38)

The Greek National Congress met in Epidauros. Greece, endorsed by the occidental Franc-Tireurs, declared itself as independant (from Turkey). (St)

After this Liberation a "Commune" (Dimos Alonissos) has been founded in Alonissos (A, p. 17)

Pavlos Sideris is named as the Vice-Administrator of the regions Skopelos, Iliodromia (Alonissos) and Skiathos (but not Skyros). He stays in office until April 1823.

Skopelos, Iliodromia and Skiathos form the 15th Administration Region (Skyros the 16th region) and had its own Regional Vice-Administrator - Dimitri Kalimeris, originating from the ParaIsland.

This nomination of a Regional Vice-Administrator should have been a temporary measure, and the Administrator replaced by a governor (or proconsul). But such a Governor's Office has never been introduced on the Northern Sporades. The duty and scope of the Governor would have been to organize the administration (literally" to organize the Islands". (K, p. 71)

[Today, following the French example, Greece is divided into prefectures = Nomarchia; the prefect corresponds to the Nomarchis. This administrative structure has been introduced after the liberation of the country.)

The Kastro in the Skiathos' mountains is abandoned, the population moves to the port side. (Br, p. 246)/cf. under the year 1829).

In the so-called London Treaty, England, France and Russia stand in favour of a Greek Autonomy. (H, p. 88)

An exaggerating peak of the piracy brings despair and endless calamities to the impoverished people on the Northern Sporades (K, p. 92)

After the end of the liberation wars, the Ministry of Finances puts heavy tax burdens on the Northern Sporades. The parts on the Internal Revenue have been for:

Skopelos                                                7 000 Grossia

Skyros                                                    3 200          "

Skiathos                                                 2 100          "

Iliodromia (Alonissos)                        450             "
(K, S. 92)

[Grossia, cf. also 1540.Fo a population of 300 inhabitants this means for the Iliodromites 1,5 Grossia pp]

By order no. 6056, the inhabitants of the Islands Skopelos, Skiathos and Iliodromia (Alonissos) have to pay:

to Dim. Kefalon                    9.584 Grossia  and

to Captain A. Vaios             9.136          "

from their own revenues, instead of reverting those sums to the Treasury. )K. p. 94) [Grossia, cf. 1540]

With the order 506 it is disposed that the inhabitants of the Northern Sporades should pay 15% of their custom revenues to a certain Mr. Doukas, who has been nominated Director of the military measures against Euboea. The money served to pay the crews of the ships detached to this purpose; as a matter of fact, Euboea was still in the hands of the Turks. (K, p. 94)

[Unfortunately those details about tax payments and the two other cited indications could not be put in a coherent context.]

The Treaty of Adrianople gives Greece the Independence from the Ottoman Empire. (St.)

In Skiathos, the inhabitants leave the Kastro and, instead of the antic city, choose to settle nearby the harbour. (Ph., p. 43/cf also under 1825).

The Island of Alonissos, after having suffered heavily during the Greek Independence war, is ceded by the Turks to the Kingdom of Greece. Other sources date the Liberation to the year 1821. (S. p. 19)

The Iliodromites report to the Regional Administrator that their small Island is full of pirates and that the whole sea region between northern Euboea, the bay of Lamia (Lamiakos Kolpos) and the golf of Volos (Pagassitikos Kolpos) are controlled and dominated by fearless pirates, who enrich themselves at the costs of the Northern Sporades and the Regional Administrator Christopheros Perreros (K, p. 434)

King Otto I. of Bavaria becomes Regent of the GreekKingdom. (St)

In those times the Northern Sporades are border regions to the Ottoman Empire. Northern Greece and Macedonia belong to the Osmanian Empire. (M, p. 51)

On behalf of the Royal Government of Greece, the Saxonian Mountain-Commissary and Mining expert - Dr Karl Gustav Fiedler - inspects the land in search of mineral resources. He visits also Chilidromia, as Alonissos was called in those times. Near Kokkino Kastro he finds 11 old graves, 2 of them never opened. He had them opened and confects drawing of the graves and eventual adjuncts.

This is what Fiedler reports:

" As usual, the village of Chilidromia... consists of light and unaligned houses, with narrow, warped and dirty lanes between them. The village has a wall; onto it often houses are built, being locked with a wooden gate. On the Northern and Western front, steep rocks fall down, and even the south side entrance is not of an easy access. The east side has some space under the wall, and it is from here, where the gate is, that an attack might occur. On this east side they have erected some more house, and in one of them I was lodged, the site is missing the main object, the so-called Coffee House. All in all there are some fifty people living there and in those eastern houses. The people are rather very pale, have a lot of deep black hairs, and under the female persons I hardly could find one with a pretty physiognomy..."

"On the east side, behind the houses extra muros there descends a steep slope with some antic pits and it is from here that all the water must be fetched from. The site by itself does not have any wells and, obviously, the first thing the enemy is confiscating is the water..."

"On the northern side of the town there is a windmill..."

"When you go into the eastern direction, turning NO, you see argillaceous schist, showing different stratums, afterwards there is a small lime/marl covered with a thick lime stratum. On the south side of the walkway the slopes have terraces where grapevine is planted, here and there you see groups of olive trees; this part of the Island, seen from the sea, can be considered as an one and only Vineyard." (F, volume 2, p. 32p)

During his analyses Fiedler find a small quantity of lignite, and, in order to pursue his research, he asks the three sappers, accompanying him, to dig an adit. He had a native joining them, a man who has been a pirate not long ago and who had to care for water, wood etc..." Three days later, they observed two sails, cruising near the coast. "Pirates, said the native. Two barges with 27 pirates, as we knew afterwards. When Fiedler returns into the village, rather late inside the walls, he is told that coming home that late from  research work or from hunting is not a good thing"... and his interpreter tells him: "the Sappers may not be left outside, they are too few of them to defend themselves against the burglars. You must move into the safer part of the town, because in those houses in front of the wall, you might be sequestrated very easily. We must stay close together in order to assist one another: because nobody can be sure whether those pirates could still relay on former followers in town". He mandated one of his companions with a small sailboat to Skopelos in order to get more supplies. "Because bread, cheese, tobacco, drinkable wine, coffee and sugar are not available here, the people live in very poor conditions" Later, already in Athens, he was told, that those pirates, who were inquiring about the baggage of the Royal Commission, had, shortly after our leaving, boarded another ship, of which "all 15 people have been murdered; and that they made a visit to the poor people of Chilidromia". But they (the pirates) had to face a storm, drifted to the coast, were shipwrecked and already expected by the Turks (F, volume 2, p. 38pp)

Before his departure, Fiedler analysed the historical Greek graves on the Island of Chilidromia: Immediately behind the old town (he speaks of Kokkino-Kastro) you find graves. All those in sight have been opened, and are in a desperate state, cover plates and pots broken, and the silent rooms do not even contain the bones of the defunct any more. Everywhere one hoped to find some valuables, but this is not the place to look for. Those who lived here very poor as well... and there was no sign of any art work on this island" He conducted some excavations to analyse the graves altogether, to find out, whether some adjuncts might be found. He found two untouched graves with the skeletons. The following facts were important to him:

Near the feet, all the graves have a storage item, one square cubit (long around 70cm), where one finds the items accompanying the corpses. Such storage items were never found elsewhere.

2) All the mirrors found there were of bendable copper, and not in bronze.

4) Each storage item contained at least one amphora, 1 oil crock, 1 lamp and several drinking jars.

4) All the corpses lied with the head southwards on a thin sand stratum. The corpses were rather tall, but not uncommonly tall.

The graves were lined with lime stone masonry 1 inch to 2 inch thick, on the whole in a rather meticulous and dry manner. Usually up to one cubit thick. Only near the head and the feet an upstanding thick lime plate limited the space.

Fiedler got the permission from the Government to take the objects with him "Those items were declared as cargo, but in Trieste..... the items were broken due to unscrupulous handling" (F, volume 2, page 51 pp)

The Island Kyra Panagia is an uninhabited island in the proximity of Skopelos, owned by the Monastery Agia Lavra on the HolyMountain (Athos). This Island served as a pasture for sheep and goats, and, not the least, during the Liberation Wars, as a hiding place and starting point for Robbers and pirates. This island was expurgated of robbers and pirates under the regency of King Otto. Up to this time, the Islands served as a hideout, the vespiary for robbers and pirates (K, p. 348)

In an effort  of historical repositioning of the nation, coinciding with the end of the Turkish occupation, the Island is officially baptized " Alonissos"                                                                                                                                      

Maybe the patrons made a mistake. The actual Alonnissos has nothing to do with the ancient one, described by this name, the ancient Greeks were speaking of the Island Kyra Panagia, north-east of Skopelos, today an uninhabited Islands with two, quite natural harbours. (D, p. 15)

In some kind of organized protest, the inhabitants of the island of Skopelos want the abolition of the dowry for bachelor girls and the distribution of property to the children in equal parts. This initiative has as an origin some 'secret murders" of female babies in connection with this rite of the dowry. "The rite of the dowry ... did become a real scourge. The fact to provide the marriageable daughter with real estate or other goods and money has no longer been a voluntary act, but a custom sanctioned by the State, throwing families with lesser resources into misery (cf. 1903, 1983). Pa, p. 160)

The German Traveller Ross reports that on Chiliodromia has been found an Amphora handle with the stamp IKION [from Ikos] (fr, p. 16)

A first demographic census:

The population of the Islands counts 312 persons (M, p. 105)

On the Sporades live 9 788 persons all in all.

(M, p. 173 - 174)

As a son of the priest of Skiathos, Alexander Papadiamantis, later a famous writer is born; he died in 1911. (Pa, p. 150 p)

Skopelos has 30 bigger and 90 smaller ships. The shipbuilding business used to be important because of the forest stand; the dockyards could afford to build sailing ships up to 300 or 400 tons. Captains from Skopelos sailed as far as to the Black Sea and the Western Mediterranean Sea. This evolution was stopped with the upcoming of steamships. (M, p. 269)

In the second half of the 19th Century a change occurred as far as the rural production is concerned: the origin of it is a changing demand and the loss of the Turkish market (borders were closed), and Russia (customs on wine); in England the resinous wine was not a success. Furthermore, the former shipments of oil from the mainland (Magnisia) - continuing to belong to the Ottoman Empire and having its borders locked - had to be replaced by local oil production. The ancient cultivating  system with wine, citrus fruits and fruits has been replaced by a new one, producing olives, plums and almonds. The monoculture of wine was followed by a monoculture of olives.

Only since the end of the century the Phylloxera epidemic gained momentum. (M, s. 265 pp).

Agios Dimitrios is founded where - in the sound between Alonissos and Peristera - a small and flat boulder slope extends to the sea, having been formed by a constant collision between the North and South bound waves. (M, p 38- 42)/ph, p. 47)

[A higher probability and a precise scrutiny on the spot lets think of two rivers flowing from the islands innards and forming an alluvial cone over long time periods]

Revocation of Otto I. of Bavaria. He returns to Bamberg with his wife. George of Denmark becomes his successor as King of Greece, reigning until 1913. (H, p 92)

"Otto has been a little pedantic and Amalia was often rather impulsive; later generations recognised  their seriousness and the progress in which Greece was engaged during their reign. The population and the navigation business doubled within 30 years, the foreign commerce, having been in 1833 at its lowest, raised fourfold (and in the consecutive decennia doubled once again). The little village Athens became a little town, and the harbour Piraeus, quite inexistent before, grew to a splendid harbour. Without interrupting the relationship with the protecting powers, the King did everything to make Greece a de facto independent state" (H, p. 92)

The Geographer Conrad Bursian published a work in two volumes covering the geography of Greece. In the second tome he describes the Northern Sporades, and, obviously, also Alonissos. A canal ... separates Skopelos from the ... island of Chelidromia, the old Ikos, composed of a mountainous chain from the southwest to the northeast, whose history ...coincides with the neighbouring      islands of Skopelos and Skiathos. While offering today only a village situated on the south coast in a small bay, habited by only 50 families, the island possessed in antic times two cities, with one of them bearing the name of Ikos. The emplacement of the city situated on the southern part of the islands is still marked by some rests of an ancient city wall and numerous old graves, as of the other town, no trace of a vestige is found; nor did one found anything related to the grave of Peleus, the father of Apollo, which, throughout the antiquity, was shown to people ".  (B, Volume2, p. 389)

As of Skopelos he cites: "How populous the islands has been can be deduced from the fact that three cities existed therein, the most important of them was named Peparethos, as the island by itself and was situated approximately there, where the actual city of Skopelos is now...a circumstance explaining that quite no relics of the old town are conserved, exception made perhaps of some graves on the opposite site of the bay. The second town, Panormos was situated, without any doubt, around the Panormos Bay, the third, Selinos, was also on the west coast, but farther to the north, yet below the actual village Glossa, where one finds today debris of columns, foundations of buildings, graves and a stone bearing an inscription, the only proof of the name of the city." This stone was found on the embarkment place down from Glossa. From Glossa downwards you find now the harbour Loutraki. (B, volume 2. p. 388).

To Bursian "it seems highly probable", that "Skanzoura is  a small and barren island, bearing a city with identical name  - situated between Chelidromia and Skyros, with a small but fine harbour, known in history, because of the negotiations between Philip II. of Macedon and Athens, disputing the ownership, may be the historical Halonessos. (B, volume 2, p. 390)

[In contradiction to Bursian's opinion, one thinks today, that in antic times Kyra Panagia may have been named Halonissos or Alonissos. the "H" at the beginning of the word is an "aspirate "(consonant), denoted by an Spiritus asper (') sign.

Among other facts, the Philologist H.N. Ulrichs cites also the Wine of Skiathos. (M, p. 265ff)

Earthquakes on the island. (M, p 38 - 42)

On the islands, one starts with clearing the woods to pant olive trees in a systematic way. (M, p. 265 pp)

Earthquakes on the island. (M, p 38 - 42)

Approximately 35% of the active population of the Skopelos and Skiathos islands are working in the Shipyards and in sailing navigation (M, p. 273)

Bankruptcy of the shipping companies in Skopelos and Skiathos, not adapting themselves to the steam navigation and steaming shipyard. (M, p. 272)

Thessaly (with Volos) is annexed to Greece.

The population of Alonissos comprises 498 persons. Skopelos 5.363 and Skiathos 2. 804 persons.

There exist reports speaking of the wealth of the ship owners and ship builders fading away by the ascension of steam navigation. Heavy emigration of the dynamic populations to overseas continents. (M, p. 269, 273)

The population of Greece counts now 2 343 000 souls, this means approx. 37,4 inhabitants per square km; there are also 250 000 Albanians and 32 000 members of other nationalities among the population. 138 000 Greeks are living outside Greece. (Den, p. 1142)

The population of the Island comprises 653 persons; doubling since 1848 (M, p. 105)

On the SporadesIslands live 8 838 persons (M, p. 173 p)

The Geographer Alfred Philipson makes a tour on the Northern Sporades. As for Alonissos he wrote: "The place, on stormy heights, easy to defend, is easily recognized by its high windmills, is one f the poorest, unreachable nests of the Archipelago, lacking of any regularly traffic with the outer world. Furthermore, there is no house on the island. People living of the acres surrounding the village et from cattle-breeding; one says, that in former times they have been pirates... Some few goat herder, who in their leather trousers make a wild impression, loggers and charcoal burners cross the extended and isolated mountain, which showed during my visits fantastic pinewoods, but otherwise ravaged macchia" (Ph, p, 48)

Alonissos is 21 km long, with a biggest width of 5,5 km and a surface of 62 square Kilometres. This makes Alonissos the second biggest Island  of the Northern Sporades  (Skiathos with 45 and Skopelos with 96 square-kilometres) 

Philippson reports that Skiathos produces only olive oil and cites the numerous goat flocks. "The Island could easily produce more than it does. The only products worth to be mentioned are goats and a very good oil". For a comparison cf. 1863 (Ph, p. 43)

He writes: At the end of the "Magnisian Island Line" there lies the isle Psathoura, long 2 km and 750 m wide, in the west 12 to 15 meters high with cliffs. On the north end is a lighthouse and the rest of a fortification. In 1896 14 people lived on the island. Psathoura "has a complete different geo-morphology than the other Islands. Psathoura is the rest of a volcano".

On the island of Skantzoura there is a marble quarry.

(Ph. volume 4, p. 49)

5 880 ships of all kind together with 326 000 tons produced an import value of 93 000 and an export value of 65 000 Mark

In Greece there are now 1.500 km of railway tracks, 354 Post and Telegraph stations with a telegraphic line of 4 000 km (Den, p. 1142)

During a great immigration wave towards the United States, 200 000 Greek emigrated in those years out of the liberated regions and 54 000 out of the occupied regions (Pa, p. 165)

From tine to time the Pope cam from Skopelos to hold mess services (m)

At the begin of the century, the place Mourtero might have been created, it comprised some 60 persons; the fields and gardens are situated behind the place, near the fountains, coming out 48 m below the level of the village; from there, the water was transported into the houses. Cisterns were not used. In this valley, a river might have flown down to the sea. After the second World War, people began to abandon the place, settling in the harbour town of Patitir, abandoning Mourtero little by little.

In the periodic paper Panathinaia, a great tale, titled "The Murderess" of Alexander Papadiamantis is published as a cliffhanger from January 15 up to June 15. The author describes "... the psychological situation of a women, who, in her sixties realizes the situation, which she together with her daughters, hase to sustain and to face: 'slaves and warden in the same time'. Condemned to be servant to  the parents, to the children and to  the grand children; their lives: an unsatisfying, futile burden'. The old Frangojannou tells us, 'that female babies are better off dying after  the birth, that they should be better killed....; in the midst of the 19th century, the killing of children was a not unknown, although disavowed custom: female babies were often drowned immediately after the birth, by their mothers, grandmothers or midwifes.'(Pa, p. 158, 162)

In his addendum to the annual school report in Poznan, Dr. Carl Fredrich describes a visit to the small island of Hagiostrati, where he made some studies. His report has as the title "Halonnesos". In this, he proves that neither the Island Xeronisi, as Lolling thinks, nor Skantzoura, as Bursian believes, nor Psathoura neither can be Halonnesos. He answers the question of the Archaeology, what Islands is meant by the ancient name of Halonnisos, with the sentence: Hagiostrati is Halonnesos" (Fr, p. 18)

[It is strange, that the Island Kyra Panagia was not included in this question.]

In Skiathos the writer Alexandros Papadiamantis dies. (Pa, p. 154)

Alonissos lost 7 men during the First World War. On the Platia in the old village, there is a plate with their names on:

                1912 - 1913

                                                                                Kon. A. Agalou

                                                                                St. I. Agalou

                                                                                Kon. D. Vlaikos

                                                                                Xar. X. Mourisis

                                                                                Kon. Z. Nikolaou

                                                                                Nk. S. Xydeas

                                                                                Pan. G. Tsoukanas

                                                                                APEQANON UPER PATRIDOS

                                                                        [Died for the Fatherland]

  

  

 

 The Commune Alonissos (Dimos Alonissos) is renamed the "Village Commune of Alonissos" (Kinotis Alonissos) (A, p. 17)

In Patitiri is built the first house nearby the harbour, situated at the end of the first lane deviating from the western main street. The house was built by Joannis Christou, the grand father of Athanasios Papos. He exchanged another property with a lot in Patitiri and built a house there. The people in the village kept saying" How can he leave the village and live in Patitiri? He must be crazy!" Joannis Christou owned a sailing boat and was trading with Volos. This might have been the first cargo Kaiki in Alonissos. Joannis died in a storm while sailing. (m)

In the Greek-Turkish War, Greece looses East-Thrakia and its Anatolian properties. 1,35 Millions Greeks were displaced from Turkey.

On the right site of the memorial on the Platia in the old village there are two names engraved:

K. Theodorou                       Synt/xis      1922

D. M. Vlaikos                                             1920

Both of them were probably killed while fighting the Turks in connection with the expulsion of the Greeks from Anatolia.
[Sunt/chV = SuntagmatarchV = Oberst]]

The tale goes that there has been a Gate at the entrance of the village, locked at sundown. The ones coming home too late had to stay the night outside. The key to this gate, dismounted a long time ago, exists and is kept in the town hall as a souvenir (m)

The big gate at the entrance was called Palio Porta; the smaller equivalent on the other end of the village was named Paraport, and from there some steps led down the rock toward the slope. Some of the steps can still be seen.

Fishermen found nearby CapeArtemission the - in the mean time famous - statue of the Sea God Poseidon. Today one can admire it in the National Museum of Athens. (m)

The population of Alonissos counts now 1005 persons (Ph.  p. 48)

Skopelos has 6 124 Inhabitants (Ph.p. 47)

Skiathos has  3 213 Inhabitants (Ph.p. 47)

In the old village there exist two taller and - because of their forms - rather outstanding houses decorated with stucco. They were built by Alonissiotes, who, because of the wealth they acquired in shipping trade, and, in order to show it, built those houses. (m)

One of the two houses, the one in the quarter of Purnari, has an inscription "AGP 1929" and, because of the similarity of the architecture, the two houses might have been built at the same time.

Before World War II, a certain Wassilis Papawassiliou was a priest in Alonissos; he was also a teacher, giving some sport lessons, played the violin and painted Icons for the churches on the Island; some of them might even have been sold, even to foreign buyers. Papawassiliou must have been a personality of great esteem (m)

The merchant marine of Greece comprised 605 Steam ships with 1 793 659 tons and 714 sailing ships with 55 491 tons (without the little Kaiki). The islands of the Aegean Sea owned quite halve of all the steam ship fleet of Greece. (Ph, volume 4, p. 401)

The population of the Island comprises now 1 386 persons, doubling since 1896 and quadruplicating since 1848, year of the first census. p. 105)

60 families have their living as as shepherds on the Island (a, p. 19)

The SporadesIslands altogether have 10 825 persons living there.

(Skiathos has 3 433, Skopelos 6 006 inhabitants).

(M, p. 173 - 174)

The school and two teachers receive around 200 pupils during a duration of 6 years (m)

Italy attacks Greece out of AlbanianTerritory; the Greek Army resists successfully. (St)

German troops occupy the Greek Mainland. (St)

Up to this day, the GreekIslands are also occupied. The German Headquarters of the Aegean Sea is in Thessaloniki. (Bu-Arch)

On Alonissos there is not a permanent German occupation. Intermittently, there some German soldiers inspecting the Island for 1 or 2 days, sometimes longer, leaving the Island afterwards. One says that the autochthones saw a German barge capsizing during a strong thunderstorm on the north side of the Island, taking all the German soldiers with it; the population salvaged the stranded goods (helmets, arms etc.) (m)

Major Sommer, of the 5th "Gebirgsjager-Division" (soldiers skilled to fight in Mountain environments) transfers the defence, the security and the administration of Euboea to Colonel Maestri and the Italian Army. This was the object of a solemn act of transition in Chalkis. (Bu-Arch)

In a secret report of the German Army group E, we can read that the Partisans in Greece count for 18 to 20 thousand men (Bu-Arch)

The Duce, Benito Mussolini, is deposed as head of the Government by the King of Italy and replaced by General Badolgio. For the German Army in Greece that means that the " Case Axis " has to be activated: The Italien units are disarmed (Bu-Arch)

The German Port-Commander of Skopelos reports to his superior: "The population of the North-AegeanIslands have an refusing attitude towards the partisans and are welcoming the occupation forces in a friendly way. Every support is granted without insisting to much" (Bu-Arch, Rh 19 VII// 54, file card 2)

The situational report of the High Commanders of the Army Group E reports: There exists a marine organisation ELAN (Greek Liberation Army). With a number of armed motor glider, it is active in the whole Greek coastal  and insular region. Tasks:

1) Safeguarding the traffic between the Islands and the Continent.

2) Perturbation of the German supply  traffic

3) Control of the private shipping activities, coupled with a tax  collection

4) Favouring the immigration out of Greece

(Bu-Arch, Rh 19 VII// 33)

The forces of the partisans mounts to 50 000 men (approx.) This respectable partisan army is organised in 12 divisions and - trough supplies from England and Russia - well armed.

In the last three months 113 acts of sabotage have been committed in connection with the Greek Railway Lines. (Bu-Arch)

Concerning the Attitude of the population against the partisan, an spy informs the intelligence troops 170: On the Euboae Island the misery is immense. "Andartes " (partisans) divulge panic and terror. Because of plundering and requisitions there is a famine. The Andartes murder even relatives of communist enemies and burn their houses"

(Bu-Arch, RH 19 VII/54, file card 2)

As far as the provisioning of the partisans is concerned, a paper of the Commanders of the Army Group E informs: In Greece there are

46 dropping places, where English or Russian aircrafts drop victuals, arms and ammunition,

18 accessible airfields

8 airfields in construction

72 landing points for sea-going vessels

                58 for submarines

                3 for torpedo boats and destroyers

                29 for motorised sailing boats (Kaikis)

Same landing spots qualify for more the one type of vessel

((Bu-Arch., RH 19 VII / 33, fol. 141-145)

As for the Islands around Alonissos and concerning the supplies for partisans you can get the following information from the German Army (sea) map 1:200 000

Insel Skiathos                        - Landing spots [NO - page]

Island Skopelos                   - Landing spots [NO -page]

Island Alonissos  - - - - - - - -

Island Kyra Panagia - Landing spots [NW - page]

 Melissa   - Marine Bases

Island Piperi -        - Landing spots

Island Psathura-    - Landing spots

Island Euboea        - 2 Landing spots

                                  - 2 Aborting areas

                                 - 3 Marine Bases (Bu-Arch)

In the attachments to the War Journal of the 68th  Army Corps we can read: The commanding Officer of Glossa (Skopelos) Tenant Adler, together with four of his men fell in a hold-up in the town of Skiathos, and has been captured unwounded. With a Partisan-Kaiki they were brought to Pelion. During a search, 20 hostages were taken. A punishing action is going to be engaged"

((Bu-Arch., RH 19 VII / 33, fol.76)

German soldiers execute 9 Greeks on the Platia of the village, the 10th  survives, his name is Apostolis Vlaikos. As the rumour goes, he simulated a dead man and survived. There is another version that someone shouted toward him, saying that his wife had born a son, Panajoti; because of this event he should been spared; the German officer having deliberately missed, and as the bullet struck his ear, he was saved but rested hard of hearing. (m)

(Later, in the seventies, Apostolis Vlaikos was elected City Major)

Secondly to information within the population, the nine hostages were executed by a commando consisting of German-speaking Rumanians and a German Officer.

A confidential information says that the hostages have been betrayed by autochtones, because they used their boats to bring English soldiers to Turkey or to English submarines, cruising in the Aegean Archipelago.* As those  saving actions brought a significant reward, and therefore money, the betrayal originated from pure grudge.

The last name on the memorial at the Village's entrance concerns perhaps a casual visitor to Alonissos (m, s cf. also 15.8.1984 and 15.8.1999)

[Although a thorough scrutiny in the military archives in Freiburg, no corresponding files were found. It is only taken for granted that a small Macedonian-Rumanian unit has been present in Skiathos.]

*["During World War II, Skiathos -during a specific period - has been the main intermediary station for absconded allied soldiers, because the British, Australian and New-Zealand troupes retired from Greece under the pressure of the German advance. The dispersed soldiers were brought from the Mainland to the Island and later, by ship, to Turkey, from where many of them could reach their units in Egypt. (Br, p. 247)]

German soldiers occupied 2 house in the village: the house next to Mara Malamatenias' shop, which has been rebuilt in 1996/97, as well as another house in the quarter of Purnari. In both houses a fire was set on when the soldiers quit; the first house burned down and in the second some timber were carbonised. (m)

The Marine Group South reports: Against Skiathos a punishment action was taken: 2 thirds of the city has been destroyed and 5 sailing boats sunk. ((Bu-Arch., RH 19 VII / 33, fol.55 p)

In the annexes to the War Journal of the Marine Group South there exists the following inscription: While cleaning the coast of North-Euboea and the mainland facing it, 104 vessels have been captured. 63 of them were sunk, because of uselessness and 41 of them were incorporated for our use" (Bu-Arch., RH 19 VII / 33, fol. 84)

Following an orde,   the German civil persons left Greece and is transferred to Germany; all female auxiliary persons followed as well. All the Army clubs were shut down (Bu-Archive)

It was brought to the knowledge of the Army Group E that German soldiers and sailors were observed, while selling uniforms and equipment on the black market in order to acquire civil cloths. (Bu-Arch)

The order of complete evacuation of the Aegean Sea and the Greek Mainland is published. . (Bu-Arch)

During the Greek Civil War partisans shot four men on the Island of Alonissos. Destructive acts were not carried out.

The Autochtones say that there have been neither fights nor did partisans stay permanently on the Island; no communist units have been on the Island during this period. Only once in a while Partisan-Boats landed, taking with them supplies (goats, chicken etc.) (m)

On the other hand, the communist party KKE got more the 20% of the votes during the elections of 1974. (m)

During the Greek Civil War the disputes were fought out cruelly. Police and the Military keep up to 5 000 "leftist" Greek women and their children under indescribable conditions on the small Islands of Trikeri in the golf of Volos. In order to escape from the psychological isolation, they foun secretly a school and a theatre group. (Th, p. 81pp)

Citing this very year, the memorial in the village lists the following names:

K.N. Efstahiou

T.K Kastanis

D.N. Vougiouklis

Approximatively  from this time on, the damages made by the bug Phyloxera vastatrix are vevident  in the vineyards, leading - during this only year - to the accelerated wiping out of the wine cultures. The winegrowers cannot afford the money to acquire any wine variety from the USA, resistant to this varmint. (m)

Secondly to a signed list made on this very day, 3 962 barrel (varelia) coming from 302 producers were produced in Alonissos.

1 barrel as a measuring unit (Varela) correspond to 50 Okades, one Oka (mia oka) corresponds to 1 280 grams, secondly to other informations 1320 grams, ergo 1,3 kg,
1 barrel contained therefore 65 litres (approx.)

The vintage of 1950 yielded therefore 257 530 litres. Per producer therefore an average of 853 Liter(np)

 

On the Island there are 400 ranchers with 6 373 goats, 517 sheep, 264 Donkeys/Mules and 70 bullocks/cows.

(M, p. 246, 247)

The first foreigners come on the Islands and start building seaside houses. (m)

On the Islands 30 families (approx.) live as shepherds.

Manos Kalogridis from Athens opens the Artemis Bungalows, First tourist commencements on Alonissos (m)

The tale goes that since those times, the old harbour of Mikro Murtia was  not longer in use. It has been replaced by the actual harbour in the bay of Patatiri. This  was a slow transition. From the old harbour, a Kaiki went out once every morning to Skopelos, where all the communal office are situated, and comes back in the evening. The ferry service is assured by Dimitrios Agallou, Dinitrios Drossakis and Theodorus Florous. Only occasionally a bigger Kaiki aborted the bay of Megalo Murtia. (m)

Christos Athanassiuou, nickname Christaki or " o sofoV " [the wise man], writes about Alonissos "H NHSOS ALONHHSOS. ("The Island Alonissos") . [The text is available in German]. He worked as a healer and a counsellor, before a medicine doctor came on the Island. One of the first Doctor was his son Georgius. (m)

On Alonissos were harvested 165 t of olives, 27 t of grapes (of wine), 229 t of cereals, 43 t of almonds and 8 t of lemons (M, p. 235)

The per capita income in Alonissos is of 7 890 Drs, equal to 260 $. The transfers from the sea men and the emigrants (also from the mainland, Athens etc...) count here for 40%. The per capita income is 11% below the income in Skopelos and is only 54% of the average income in Greece as a whole.

Rates: 30 Drs = 1 US , respectively 7,5 Dr = 1 DEM

(M, p. 255 pp)

While outlying the construction of a water reserve for the water supply, one counts 370 persons in the village, in Patitiri and Votsi 500 persons each. (M, p. 66, 57)

There are 22 fishermen in Alonissos (M, p. 247)  

A terrible earthquake shakes Alonissos and the surrounding Islands.

A Greek Newspaper shows the first aerial views with the following caption: "Destroyed houses, houses without roofs and other houses still intact. The photo, taken from an aircraft, shows the village Alonissos only a few hours after the sinister, which made 25 houses collapsing and many others heavily damaged, all in all more then 110. The inhabitants were afraid to enter their houses and sleep inside" (m, Greek newspaper clip).

Queen mother Friederike visits the affected Islands by helicopter and speaks to the inhabitants. In order to visit Alonissos, she lands on a place behind the cemetery
(m/ Greek newspaper clip)

Military personnel arrives on the Island and builds a simple road from the harbour toward the old village. The Government is promising new houses to the inhabitants, down in Patitiri.

Papa Gregorios Tsamaris, originating from the Island Euboea starts his service on the Island (m)

In the village, the church A. Nikolas is rebuilt (m)

The beginning  of the Military Dictatorship in Greece (until 1974)

In Patitiri a new school is built. (m)

Begin of building the new settlement between Patitiri and  Votsi (m)

In Patitiri exists a school with three grades, in the village a primary school with two grades (M, p. 251-254)

The school in the village is frequented by 25 pupils (approx,), with alternating school hours.

Construction of a power station in Votsi, alimenting Patitiri and Votsi with electricity. (m)

The "Modern Barracks settlement" with 231 houses is "ready". Fresh and sewage water systems are still missing; the houses by themselves are very primitive, they must be adapted by the owners themselves. The emigration from the old village to the new settlement starts. (Suddeutsche Zeitung of Jan 3/4, 1976. p. 3)

In front of the Island Kyra Panagia the wreck of a byzantine ship, 25 m long from the 12th century and with a shipload of approx. 1 500 amphorae, grinding stones etc. is discovered and analysed.

With local craftsmen and under the direction of the master builder Wassilis "Beyes" Anagnostou starts in Patitiri with a lot of difficulties the construction of a bigger church - Agia Paraskevi - on the rests of the old one, which - possessing also wall painting was partially damaged by the earthquake.

There is a slow movement of selling houses in the village to foreigners. Greeks coming from Athens are the first buyers. Individual foreign nationals are building some residences in various bays.

The population of the Islands comprises now 1 471 persons (M, p. 105)

On the Sporades live now 9 855 persons,

in Skiathos 3 908, in Skopelos 4 476.

(M, p 173/74)

The airfield in Skiathos is running

(M, p. 20)

A Ferry flyer says that the fare from Alonissos to Volos costs 189 Drs and the fare from Alonissos to Ag. Konstantinos and further down to Athens costs 278 Drs.

Construction of a quay wall in the harbour to serve as a landing stage for bigger vessels; extensions follow later (m) 

On the Island there is the automobile of the priest and one  or two  trucks. A dirt road is built from Patitiri to Votsi. (m)

End of the military Dictatorship in Greece. Karamanlis is back from his french  exile becomes Prime Minister (Nea Demokratia).

A forest fire behind Votsi. (m)

In the village, the first house is renovated and inhabited by foreigners. The shower and WC are much admired  innovations. (m)

There is enough water in the village. As a matter of fact, most of the houses have fresh water (connections). (m)

Greece becomes a Parliamentarian Presidential Democracy. Karamanlis (Nea Demokratia) becomes Prime Minister. (m)

The German Newspaper "Suddeutsche Zeitung" publishes an article "When a village looses its soul - the forced descend of the citizens of Alonissos". Afflicted by an earthquake 11 years ago, the inhabitants of a GreekIslands become the victims of a mishandled settlement project. The author is Olaf Ihlau.

Because of renewed emigration, only a few families - together with their animals - live still in the village.

The Tavern of Nina and Stavros is opened. Stavros works as a resin collector on the Island and works as the village's hairdresser. (m)

The intensive and ongoing construction activity in Patitiri and Votsi has its origin in the fact that for their dowry the daughters - following an old custom - are entitled to have a house of their own. Pften one starts with the construction while the girls are still in school. (m)

The "language war" between the Katharevousa, a written language of scientists  relying heavily on classic and purist Greek and, on the other side, the Dimotki language spoken by the common people, is arranged in such that the Dikotiki is also introduced in the nation-wide administrations. (Pa. p. 155, 164)

In Patitiri, the new and enlarged church Agia Paraskevi is consecrated

With the beginning of the Summer Holidays, the school in the village is definitively closed and the village has no water any more. The last inhabitants as well are thereby forced to move to the settlement the Government has made available to them. Only the families Athanassiou remain there. Christos and Angeliki, his sister Heleni (Goat-Heleni), all three of them deceased in the meantime, and Seniorita with her Husband Wassilis Loys (deceased in 1991) as well as their old aunt Miskathistsa (deceased since many years). Also staying there were Jannis and Angeliki, Jannis, mentally handicapped,  lived in the village in the last years and in the winter 1996/97 was found dead near the ValitsaBay. (m)

The forced exodus has brought its lot of pain and misery to the inhabitants of the village.

For quite a long time, the village had neither Telephone nor shops. Only Georgios (living today in Saloniki) is selling the most needed goods, he brings also bread from Patitiri, In his shop is the public phone, which disappears togehter with the little shop shutting  down. (m)

Barba Elias and his daughter in law open the Tavern "Paraport". (m)

The very first tourism activities on the Island. (M, p. 81 - 84)

2.500 tourists are counted, mostly Greek from Athens and Thessaloniki. (M, p. 206)

In the midst of August a forest fire near Kokkino Kastro. (m)

The average per capita income is given with 6 100 Drachmes, respectively 1. 700 $, which is 6,5-fold more then in 1964. The part of wired checks from the seamen and the emigrants, as well as the revenues from Tourism - including the real estate sales - are estimated to be responsible of 75 % of that amount (M,, p. 260 pp)

Jannis and Keratsula take over the Tavern "Paraport" (m)

Pakis Athanasiou founds the "The Fishermen's Cooperative of Alonissos". (m)

Maria Anagnostou opens a Pantopoleion in the village. (m)

In the village, the 5 threshing places - the Alonia - nearby the village are still used. The threshing is made with  the help of a Mularis, a mule, which draws a so called Dokani, a threshing plank with sharp-edged stones on the underside over the dry cereals, separating the grains from the spikes. In the centre of the Aloni is a pale, where the animal is tied to by a long cord. When trotting, the cord winds itself around the pale and transforms the circular movement into a spiral one, drawing the Dokani over the spread wheat. As a second step, the cereals are drown into the wind, in order to separate the wheat from the chaff.(m)

In a Greek newspaper appears an article "Alonissos too is being sold", in which, in a rather polemic manner one relates: "Village Kastro.... under German occupation. The majority of the foreigners were English people, at least on those times - (Newspaper clip).

The waste dump is behind the cemetery. (m)

First Taxi in the Island. (m)

Greece becomes a member of the EC. During the next decade, quite all the public infrastructure projects are financed by the European Structure Fond; also on Alonissos: Lanes, roads, framing new wells, water conduits, electrification, telephone infrastructure, wards, harbour infrastructure, helicopter landing place etc... (m)

The tavern of Ninas and Stavros gets electricity for the light and the refrigerator by a separate generator. In the past, Stavros brought the ice blocks from Patitiri by a mule.

There is a scarcity of water on the island, no rainfall since February.

Red Fire jellyfish on beaches and in bays. (m)

Panajotis Kalojannis opens his Tavern "Aloni". Now there is once again a Public Telephone. (m)

First bus line between Patitiri to the village (bus from IKOS Travel), the fare is 100 Dr (m)

The Geographer Udo Zindel sets up the first and provisional city map of the village (m)

In Greece, by a new legislation in the family sector, the dowry as a public institution is abolished. (Pa, p. 164)

Inauguration of the first Pharmacy in Patitiri

Janni and Heleni Tsoukanas open their Boarding House on the Platia

A small earthquake can be felt, but makes no damages (m)

Water is available only every 6th day and, when, only in  small quantities

The waste dump is transferred to the west side of the Kalovulo; a dirt road is leading to it. (m)

The Commune gets a garbage truck. (n)

Maria Malamatenia opens the second Pontopoleion in the village. In both "Maria's shop" self-baked bread is sold. (m)

Sufficient water supply in the village, a new Nerolas, Niko Anagnostou, organizes the supply.

A memorial plate in the village is unveiled on the Platia, to honour for the men having been executed by the German "Wehrmacht".

The inscription reads as follows

               

                                STOUS PATRIWTES POU EDWSAN TH ZWH TOUS GIA

                                TH LEUTERIA MAS EKTELESQHKAN APO TOUS

                                                                 GERMANOUS STIS 15. AUGOUSTOU 1944

                                                                                DROSAKHS I. NIKOLAOS

                                                                                KURIASHS N. MICALH

                                                                                FLOROUS K. NIKOLAOS

                                                                                MORISHS C. GEWRGIOS

                                                                                ALEXIOU P. NIKOLAOS

                                                                                AGALOU G. AGALLOS

                                                                                ANAGNWSTOU G. AGALLOS

                                                                                XUDEAS S. AQANASIOS

                                                                                SMURNEOS I. GEWRGIOS

[To the patriots giving their lives for our freedom, executed by the Germans on August 15, 1944]

(cf. under 15.8.1999)

Start of the Garbage collection in the village during the summer time by Mitsou and his Mule. (m)

Flying Dolphins assure the traffic between the Islands. The fare Skiathos-Alonissos is 580 Dr. (m)

Water is available once a week, during the summer time the supply becomes unsteady.

The Greek Government, by a preliminary regulation, creates  the " Northern SporadesMaritimeNational Park"

(Ka, p. 96)

In the bay of Megalo Murtia  a lane is traced out during the winter. (m)

In the bay exist two taverns. (m)

In the abandoned village of Mourtero, a German, living before in the old village, is building a house. Others are following him. (m)

Electricity in the village, start of the electrification of the houses in the village. (m)

Petros Karagkiosis, a Greek living permanently on the island, invites to a "Shadow Theatre" and gives several performances. (np)

Start of construction works on  the real estate acquired by David Frost,  down  the hill of the village.(m)

A forest fire in the MegaloMurtiaValley up to the Monopati to Patitiri. (m)

During the construction work on the land acquired by David Frost, so-called boxed graves are found. The Found is notified, but not analysed scientifically. (m+photo)

The "Greek Society for Research and Protection of the Mediterranean Monk Seal" is founded. The Northern Sporades are the most important refuge for the Mediterranean monk seals. (m)

Christos Georgios Athanassiou, nicknamed Christaki or  o sojoV  (the wise man) dies at the age of 76. (m)

Blues-Evening party of the ABB Group, the Alonissos-Blues-Band founded by Simon & Petros offers a performance; Eva and Andrew as Singers. (m)

The commencement of the road leading to the old village gets a tarmac cover. (m)

A shuttle bus links the village to Patitiri, the one-way fare is 100 Dr (Ka, p. 84)

The waste dump is transferred to the ancient quarry. (m)

The new quarry is situated nearby the island's main road just before the deviation to Steni Vala. (m)

The small lanes in the Kastro are freed of the debris covering them. (m)

The road toward the village gets a tarmac cover up to the deviation to OTE. The streets inside Patitiri get the same cover. (m)

[OTE = ORGANISMOS THLEPIKOINWNIWN ELLADOS = Griechische Fernmeldeorganisation]

Andrew Man dies. He was the first foreigner living the year round on the island and is buried in the village cemetery. His grave is surrounded by a wooden fence, following a tradition. Those fences were painted all blue. During the last years one changed for graves  with marble frames. (m)

Following an old orthodox custom, the deaths of the autochtones are exhumed after three years; the bones are washed and then conserved in little boxes in the charnel house. Many charnel shrines are not only bearing the name of the defunct, but also his picture. The corresponding grave is abandoned and after a short period can be used anew. (m)

The fishermen complain about reduced fish resources, From year to year the fishing resources are reduced. The local fishermen suffer from these facts. (m)

Inside the MarineNational Park , the lobby of the fully mechanized Fishing fleets coming from Saloniki, Volos, Kaval and Pireus were able to modify the protection rules in their favour. The Gri-Gri and the trawlers are once again allowed to fish within those zones, while also the zone's reach  by itself is reduced to 1,5 sea miles.

(Ka, p. 98)

The east side of the Patitiri harbour is embellished on a greater scale. (m)

Hans Jorg Rothenberger from Switzerland compiles a map of the island, showing also hiking trails. IKOS Travel distributes the map. (m)

On the island of Piperi there exists  a herd of 15 to 20 Lilliputian cattle. The animals were the last members of a cattle race, optimally assimilated to the Mediterranean environment and, as is told, might have survived on the island since antic times. Only one bull and one cow remain, the other members of the cattle were all killed. (Ka, p. 102)

Foundation European Natural Heritage: Inauguration of an Institute with an Information-Office in Patitiri and Steni Vala for the protection of monk seals. (m)

By the signature of the Greek Prime Minister, the Northern SporadesMarineNational Park is put on a necessary legal base. (Ka, p. 100)

Under the direction of the Greek Ephorats for Submarine Archaeology in the sound between Alonissos and Peristera, submarine archaeologists analyse a sunken antic freighter which, in 3 to 4 staples, transported 4000 amphorae with a loading weight of 100 t. The found objects are dated back to the year 400 BC. Before this discovery, ships of such a size were not known.

"The ship had loaded mostly wine from Mende and Skopelos. Wine coming from Mende and Skopelos were shipped up the Black Sea, but also to  the Western Mediterranean. This is proven by archaeological artefacts".

Small, newly erected buildings on the Island of Peristera serve as a protection for archaeological tools and as an intermediary depot for the found artefacts. More archaeological campaign might follow. The project is subsidized by the EU. (El, p. 69)

A enormous forest fire in Kokkino Kastro, Tsorti Gialo and Chrissi Milia. Large pine wood areas are destroyed.

The road from Patitiri to the village gets a complete tarmac cover. (m)

A helicopter landing spot is built near Votsi.

Construction of a grammar school and a lyceum is made possible through an Alonissotian sponsor, named Konstantinos Kalojannis. Until this time, the pupils had to go to Skopelos or Volos, generating high costs for exterior accommodation.

The Generator house in Votsi in uninstalled. Electricity comes now trough a submarine cable from the island of Skopelos (m)

Construction of a medical aide station (Medicine Doctor). (m)

Above the lane from Megalo Murtia to Marpounta, a memorial plate is fixed on a rock. The inscription reads as follows:

EDW EPESE O GEORGIOS AND. TSOUMA KAI
DIASWQH APO TOUS GERMANOUS TO ETOS 1944

XARH TWN AGIWN

[Here Georg And. Tsoumas accidentally fell down and was saved by Germans. Thanks to the Saints.]

First Kalojanneia, a school sport event to the honour of the sponsor Kalojannis. This sport competition should be held once a year. School children from Skopelos are invited to participate.

In the meantime there are 10 pubs in the old village. (m)

The first flower shop on the island is opened in Votsi. (m)

Two public card telephone boots on the village's Platia

Mitsos and Kontantina Vlaikos open their boarding house. (m)

On the city place nearby the town hall in Patitiri a new memorial is erected. It bears the same name as the one in the village. This inscription reads as follows
ANDRWN EPIFANWN PASAGH TAFOS

[" The whole world is the grave of famous men "

Thukydides, 460-395 BC]

(cf. under 19212-1913/1920/1922)

Replacing the old generator group in Votsi an administration building  of the DEH is erected.

DEH = DHMOSIA EPICEIRHSHS HLEKTRISMOY

[Greek Telecom

OTE builds an office nearby the Medical aid station (City doctor) in Patitiri. (m)

OTE = ORGANISMOS THLEPIKOINWNIWN ELLADOS

Start of the restoration work on the old church A. Anargiri with the help of private sponsors. (m)

A bank office of the National Hellenic Bank open in Patitiri. (m)

Inauguration of the International Academy of Homeopathy under the direction of Georgios Vithoulkas. (m)

There are 11 pubs in the village. (m)

Alonissos becomes an autonomous Commune within the administrative district of Skopelos, belong itself to the Regional administrative district (Nomarchie) Magnisia. (m)

The population comprises 2 980 people. (m)

Side walks are laid out in Patitiri. (m)

The foundation stone for a new town hall is laid by the Mayor Jannis Drosakis. (m)

The road to Gerakas gets a Tarmac cover, except for the last 500 m, the same goes for the road to Tsortsi Gialo.

The road from Steni Vala to Kalamakia is enlarged and prepared for the asphalt cover. (m)

Above the lane to the small church Ag. Konstantinos a antic grave has been opened by unknown people. One ignores any scientifically research. Nobody knows anything about the contents of the grave.

OTE lays a 100-conductor-cable alongside  the road toward the village; not far from the the threshing squares, the cable crosses the street and leads to the terminal block near the village border. Within a very short period, many houses had their telephone connected. (m)

In the seminar rooms of the International Academy of Homeopathy a symposium is held with the subject " The archeological research on the Northern Sporades. The organizer is the "Society for Peparithite Studies" and the "Ecological and Cultural Movement of Alonissos"

The sponsors: The Ministry of Culture, the Nomarchie Magnisia and the Lobby of the Hydrofoil Boats CERES. (np) 

The Greek Homeopath Georgios Vithoulkas, 64, the Founder and Director of the International Academy of Homeopathy is honored by the alternative Nobel Price in the Swedish Parliament. The motifs for such an honor: G. Vithoulkas, with great fervor has made it possible that Homeopathy is now on a par with other medical traditions. The Alternative Nobel Price has been called into life by the German-Swedish journalist and stamp collectors expert Jakob von Uexkull as a counter balancing to the official Nobel Price, more targeted to the politico-scientific occidental Establishment.  (Der Spiegel No. 47/7.10.1996.

On the Island, 85 families live on fishing. (Ha, p. 15)

A private appeal for funds in order to go ahead with the restoration works on the old little church of Ag. Anargiri. (m)

More lanes get a paving. (m)

In the little church Ag. Georgios, the Anniversary of St. Georges is commemorated. the Commune invites the population to a party with food and drinks. The Shuttle Bus of the Commune offers a free ride. A team of the BBC is recording the event. (m+Photo)

In the village, roads and properties are mapped for the land register. (m)

In Megalo Murtia a phone boot (for phone cards) is installed. (m)

Parts of the Paralia in Patitiri are smothered with  platters.

Start of the renovation of the old Schoolhouse in the village, completion is expected for the summer of 1998. A Museum might be installed inside. (m)

In the cemetery a little hut with a cistern is built to serve as a restroom and a locker for the undertaker's tools. (m)

The asphalt roads in the island get a white median. (m)

Kosta Mavrikis from Steni Vala publishes a book about the development of the islands Alonissos, Skopelos and Skiathos. The title is ANW MAGNHTWN NHSOI [About the Magnisian Islands]. An English and a German Translation are prepared. (m)

In the village there now 14 pubs, two others are in the construction phase. (m)

Until the end of September, the files for the land register have to be handed over to the Commune. This is, as it is said, the third try and with the help of the EU, to get a land register for the whole country, because Greece is the only country in the EU without such files. (m).

Evolution of the exchange rates:

1961-69:     30 Drs = 1 US $;   7,5 Drs = 1 DM

1974:        31 Drs = 1 US $;  11,5 Drs = 1 DM

1984:       125 Drs = 1 US $;  44   Drs = 1 DM

1990:       162 Drs = 1 US $; 100   Drs = 1 DM

1997:       278 Drs = 1 US $; 158   Drs = 1 DM

1998:       321 Drs = 1 US $; 176,5 Drs = 1 DM

In Patitiri opens a second pharmacy, offering homeopathic medicaments as well. (m)

In Patitiri there is a prison nearby the fire department. (m)

Kostas Mavrikis from Steni Vala publishes his second book in Greek and English with reproductions of old maps, inscriptions and coins. The title is : CARTOGRAFOI KAI CARAKTES SKIAQOU - SKOPELOU - ALONNHSOU.

The road to the bay of Megalo Murtia is enlarged and prepared for a tarmac cover.

The Monopati, an old paved lane having been the only connection between village and harbour, is enlarged, restored in its upper part, while adding electrical lighting.

The Monopati to the bay of Mikro Murtia has been enlarged

On the Island there may live in the meantime approx. 300 Albanians; they are regarded as cheap labour. The walls in natural stones erected by them excel by their forms.

Greece enters the Exchange Rate Mechanism of the European Monetary System.

Greece is the only country in the EU, which cannot enter the European Monetary Union (1999) because of its economical situation. From 2001 on, Greece intends to join the Euro Monetary System.

By mere chance, black and red-baked shards are found north of the threshing places. secondly to the information given by German Archaeologists (Archaeological Institute of Tuebingen) they have to do with Athenian/Attic products of the 5th. and early 4th Century. (m)

After 8 years in office, Jannis Drossakis from the Nea Demokratia is replaced by the new Mayor Orestis Konstantinos Papachristou of the PASOK party.

The new town hall in Patitiri is inaugurated by the former mayor Jannis Drossakis.

Bente Keller and Elias Zsoukanas publish a booklet with the title "Alonissos on Foot, A Walking and Swimming Guide" with watercolours by Bente Keller.  (m)

Until the 15th of May all property and house owners, including also the foreigners, have to hand in their tax declaration on the basis of the land register registration. The time limits are extended. (m)

The Commune, with the help of the EU has 14 numerated and marked hiking trails. This can be seen as a contribution to the so called "green tourism".

In the meantime you have also guided wander tours. One of the most interesting tours might be the one from Kastana across a spectacular ravine to the sea near Strofili. Smooth grinded stones and deep undermining in the rivers bed let us think of sufficient water and a strong current in former times. It is said, the water has disappeared since the earthquake of 1965 through the then formed crevices, (m)

The commune has the beaches cleaned. (m)

The concrete cover of the port installations get a special pavement, in as such that a stamp creates a simulation of natural stone plates. (m)

Flowers are planted as a decoration of the port's borders.

The Commune has installed blue painted waste bins in Patitiri and in the Village, decorated with a flower tray, where the irrigation is solved by a simple drip device.

The Commune is going to erect a commune-owned building on the land  just at the entrance of the village. In the old days there has been the town hall, where the key to the gate's lockable entrance has been conserved since then.

The preparations works start in the bay of Tsoukalia by cleaning and mapping the area for archaeological excavations of the former potter factories, where the Amphorae for wine transport had been fabricated. There is hope to find the antic kilns.  The excavations are a project of the Department of Anthropology of the University of Nebraska, under the conduct of Effie Athanassopoulos. [Cf. 394 A]

At the entrance of the village a new memorial has been placed. The inscription reads now as follows:

                                                                "TIMH S''AUTOUS OPOU STUN ZWH TWN WRISAN

                 KAI FULAGOUN QERMOPULES POTE APO TO

                                CREOS MH KINOUNTES""

                                                                STOUS EKTELESCENTES APO TOUS GERMANOUS

                TOU G'' RAIC PATRIOTES, POU EDWSAN TH ZWH

                TOUS GIA TH LEUTERIA MAS STIS 15.8.1944

                                                                               

                                DROSAKHS I. NIKOLAOS

                                KURIASHS N. MICALH

                                FLOROUS K. NIKOLAOS

                                MORISHS C. GEWRGIOS

                                ALEXIOU P. NIKOLAOS

                                AGALOU G. AGALLOS

                                ANAGNWSTOU G. AGALLOS

                                XUDEAS S. AQANASIOS

                                SMURNEOS I. GEWRGIOS

[The citation is part of a Poem "The Thermopylae" from Konstantin Kawafis. "Honour to those who waged their lives to defend the the Thermopylae, and never forgetting this vow"

To the honour of those patriots executed by the Germans of the Third Reich, giving their lives for our Liberty, July, 15th, 1944]

In Agios Dimitrios starts the excavation work to uncover the foundations of a Byzantine church. We can see already the enormous dimensions of this Basilica. (m)

After the end of the annual excavation works, the archaeological area in Tsoukalia is secured by a fence.

Three other roads have received a tarmac cover.

The road to Megalo Murtia

The Road from Steni Vala to Agios Dimitrios and the first section of the road from Votsi to Tsoukalia. (m)